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Cover image via Disney’s Toby Tyler (1960)
The DNA of chimps and humans is 99% identical, leaving only about 35 million mutation-containing sequences of just “a few DNA changes in just the right places.”[i] This DNA comparison falsifies the evolutionary claim that mutations must happen at random only to then be preserved by natural selection. Random mutations have no more ability to create and debug DNA information codes than random keystrokes and locations could create or edit an email. Intelligence is required.[ii]
One Percent Difference: About 35 Million DNA Letters
The human and chimp genomes include over three billion DNA letters. The one percent difference between the two genomes is about 35 million DNA letters. How these few differences could explain the huge actual differences between the two species is explained by leading researchers such as Katherine Pollard as only possible if these few mutations are intelligently and not randomly generated.
A simple statistical analysis of the key discovery of a 118 DNA letter control sequence that appears to be closely connected with advanced brain functions illustrates how quickly random mutations would become completely useless in generating the correct 18 letter changes that distinguish human capabilities from those of chimps.
Quickly Off Into Statistical “Never Land”
Just limiting random mutations to the 118 DNA letters of the Human Accelerated Region #1 discovered by Dr. Pollard quickly goes to impossible odds that it could be done using random mutations.
Getting just one of 18 changes between chimp and human DNA in this short sequence would be one chance in four to get the correct DNA letter and one chance in 118 to get the change at the right location. That would make one chance in 472. To get two changes made correctly with random mutations would be one chance in 472 times 472 or 222,784. To get three changes made correctly would be one chance in 472 * 472 * 472 or 105,154,048, already higher than the some 35 million total number of DNA differences between chimp and human.
This probability in this example so far would cover only three of the changes in the 118 letter DNA sequence. However, the actual differences go up to not just three changes, but an amazing 18 changes. That case, again just in this tiny DNA range and not in the three billion letters of the whole genome, would result in the 18 changes randomly generated having one chance in 472**18, or 1.35 * 10**48 (1.35 with 48 zeros after it), or in other words impossible!
“Isn’t There a Small Chance of Random Changes Powering All DNA Mutations?”
Statistics are often used to claim that there is a small possibility that random mutations can indeed be the source of DNA progress as documented in this chimp/human DNA study. This is a false use of statistics. As a counter example just examine the many statistical studies where a 95% or a 99% confidence level provides a high level of trust that the analysis is correct (1 chance in 20 or 1 chance in 100). How are those studies taken seriously and then one chance in a number with 48 zeroes is then considered a having a legitimate possibility of being true.
Intuitively, we realize that random keystrokes would have no chance in making any meaningful edits to an email or document. The probabilities so quickly go off the scale into the infinitesimally tiny that in any practical case they are not just a very small possible case but truly are impossible.
Ronald P. Millett has worked as a software developer and inventor in the challenging field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) starting in 1971. He is the inventor of 22 software patents. He has a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in computer science and a master’s degree in linguistics.
[i] “The DNA of Human Evolution,” NOVA, November 30, 2009, [https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/dna-human-evolution.html]
RPMNote: Where does the information come from to select just the right “minimum of changes”? These are extremely information dense bits given the few bits difference between the two species genomes. If the interface is predefined and the interpreter predefined and the linkage to enabled routines in the engine predefined, then yes, a few switch bits can access preprogrammed and predebugged code. Otherwise, chance evolution setting of switches that are probably not connected programmatically to anything is highly suspect of leading anywhere at all as far as functionality. In my view this statement is only possible in the context of a predesigned and debugged interface.
[ii] “Toby Tyler,” Disney Movies, Retrieved 3/14/2016.
[iii] Ronald P. Millett, “Chimps and Humans 99% Identical DNA: Proof of Intelligent Design?” Meridian Magazine, January 31, 2016.
“The one percent different DNA between chimpanzees and humans has been discovered to contain complex genetic switches. This sophisticated programming activates human brain and other characteristics in the 99% portion of DNA that the two species have in common.
“These facts imply that the chimpanzee’s DNA contains human DNA programming that is never activated for the chimpanzee. Therefore, these human routines in chimpanzee DNA would have to be intelligently designed and were not created by evolution.”
Ronald P. Millett, “Chimps and Humans 99% Identical DNA: Paradox of Actual Differences” Meridian Magazine, February 15, 2016.
“The discovery that there is only one percent difference between human and chimpanzee DNA seems to be a paradox considering the actual huge differences between the two species.”
Ronald P. Millett, “Chimps and Humans 99% identical DNA: Genetic Switches Enable Advanced Human Brain Functions,” Meridian Magazine February 28, 2016,
“The discovery that genetic switches enable advanced human brain capabilities explains how such a small DNA difference between humans and chimps can result in the huge actual differences between the two species.”