Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon
Paul’s letters to the Philippian and Colossian saints, as well as his personal letter to Philemon, were written while he was in the bonds of captivity.It is generally supposed that they were written during his first Roman imprisonment, though many have argued that they might have been written while Paul was imprisoned in Corinth, or Ephesus, or even Caesarea.Regardless of where Paul was imprisoned, his experience was difficult.Yet, as was typical of Paul, he was not without hope nor courage.“I can do all things through Christ,” he told the Philippians, “which strengtheneth me” (Philippians 4:13).
Indeed, Paul told the Philippians that his captivity had not caused the work of the kingdom to suffer.Rather, many other saints began to be more aggressive in their efforts to spread the good news of the Gospel.“Many of the brethren in the Lord,” he wrote to the Philippians, are “waxing confident by my bonds” and “are much more bold to speak the word without fear” (Philippians 1:15.).
The letters to the Philippians, Colossians, and to Philemon give us insight into the character of a loyal servant of God.Though they speak of his difficult circumstance, the focus of the letters was on the saints of the Church.In these letters he encouraged the saints to remain loyal both God and each other.He encouraged them to withstand false doctrines that were plaguing many areas of the Church.Most importantly, these letters offered succinct insight into the role and mission of Jesus Christ.The teachings therein, therefore, ought to be known by member of the Church.The following are insights into each letter that hopefully will help the reader understand Paul’s writings more clearly.
Philippi was a major city in Macedonia, built by Philip in 358-57 B.C.After being destroyed by war, it was rebuilt by Rome and made a Roman colony and was given ius italicum –the highest privilege obtainable by a provincial municipality (i.e., they could buy and sell property, were exempt from land tax and the poll tax and were entitled to protection by Roman law).Mainly Romans lived in Philippi, though many Macedonian Greeks as well as a small congregation of Jews lived there as well.
The citizens of Philippi were proud to be Romans and to observe Roman law and custom.This is reflected in Luke’s account of Paul’s missionary efforts in Philippi.During Paul’s stay, certain Philippians who were upset with the success of Paul, and his companion, Silas.They “caught Paul and Silas, and drew them into the marketplace unto the rulers, and brought them to the magistrates, saying, These men, being Jews, do exceedingly trouble our city, and teach customs, which are not lawful for us to receive, neither to observe, being Romans ” (Acts 16:19-21; emphasis added).
Paul capitalized on the Philippian allegiance in order to promote the same devotion among the Philippian saints towards their new religion.Paul urged the Philippians to “Only let your conversation be as it becometh the gospel of Christ: that whether I come and see you, or else be absent, I may hear of your affairs, that ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel” (1:27).The Greek verb translated “conversation,” politeusethe , literally means ‘to live or conduct oneself as a citizen.’ [i] It seems obvious that through the use of this word, Paul was attempting to transfer the Philippians pride as citizens to their new community of saints, hoping to unify them in love and allegiance.
He further urged this same allegiance with the kingdom of god in “heaven.” Said he, “For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Chris” (Philippians 3:20).In this verse, “conversation” translates politeuma , which literally is “commonwealth state.” [ii] Paul is saying that regardless of what nation the saints of the Church belong to, their first allegiance is to the kingdom of God.Therefore, their conduct ought to reflect an allegiance and loyalty to God and not to the kingdoms of this world.
We know little of the make up of the Philippian church.Paul had come to Philippi as a result of a vision given him in Troas: “And a vision appeared to Paul in the night; There stood a man of Macedonia, and prayed him, saying, Come over into Macedonia, and help us” (Acts 16:9).Paul found success in Philippi first with a wealthy woman named, Lydia, who made her living selling rare and expensive purple dye (Acts 16:12-15).Both her and her household became Christian converts.Paul also converted a Roman soldier with his household (Acts 16:22-34).What other success Paul had is not presently known.But it is clear that several women had joined the Church and were active in promoting the gospel.It is significant that in his letter to the Philippians, Paul mentions by name four individuals.Two of them are women! (See Philippians 4:2-3)
Paul had a special relationship with the Philippian saints.Paul called these saints: “my brethren dearly beloved and longed for, my joy and crown” (Philippians 4:1).Of all thecongregations Paul had organized, only the Philippian congregation remembered Paul in his times of trouble by sending him needed physical and financial help.Of this, Paul said: “Now ye Philippians know also, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no church communicated with me as concerning giving and receiving, but ye only.For even in Thessalonica ye sent once and again unto my necessity” (Philippians 4:15-16).In fact, the main purpose in Paul’s writing to the Philippians was to thank them for once again coming to his aid by sending him financial and physical assistance.“I am full, having received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you,” Paul wrote.Their gift was as an animal sacrifice laid on an altar, “an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, wellpleasing to God” (Philippians 4:18).
In light of the special relationship Paul had with the Philippian church, one of the saints addressed in the Philippian letter deserves special attention.In his letter, Paul made special reference to a woman at Philippi calling her his “true yokefellow” (Philippians 4:3).My first professor of Greek,Wilford Griggs, wrote of this verse in an “I have a question” response in the Ensign several years ago.As part of his answer to the question, “Was Paul married?”, Bro. Griggs wrote: “ Gnésie syzuge , the words translated ‘true yokefellow,’ are here taken as feminine, andis a noun that means ‘wife.’ Ancient commentators believed that Paul was addressing his wife (e.g., Clement of Alex., Strom. 3:53:1, and Origen, Comm. in Ep. ad. Rom. 1:1), and this is the most sensible translation of the Greek in this context.If he were married at the time, one would expect Paul to leave his wife with a faithful group of saints, where she would least suffer from want and lack of support during his absence.Both her presence in Philippi and the love of the members there for Paul would account for the constant communication with the apostle, and, if this interpretation is true, it is natural that Paul would ask his wife to assist some of the women who had done so much on his behalf.” [iii]
Though the Philippian saints loved Paul, there was much division among them.Paul wrote of the necessity of unity.In fact, the reason he appealed to their citizenship as a kingdom of saints was to unite them. He urged the Philippian saints to “stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel” (Philippians 1:27).This could be accomplished, he said, if they would “be likeminded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind” (Philippians 2:2).He cautioned: “Let nothing be done through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves.Look not every man on his own things, but every man also on the things of others.” (Philippians 2:3-4).
In an effort to bring about greater unity, Paul taught the Philippian saints some important truths regarding Jesus Christ.Christ epitomized the humility necessary to create a unified group through his attitude of service and desire to be one with the Father.“Let this mind be in you,” he urged, “which was also in Christ Jesus.Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross”.Because of Christ’s humility and oneness with the Father through obedience, God, the Father “highly exalted him” (Philippians 2:5-9).
Paul exhorted the Philippian saints to follow Christ’s pattern of oneness with the Father through humility, obedience, and service.Therefore, Paul wrote: “Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling” (Philippians 2:12).That is to say, become unified as a kingdom of saints on earth–fearing that if such unity is not achieved, they will not find themselves fit for the kingdom of God in heaven.The Lord has taught, “I say unto you, be one; and if ye are not one ye are not mine” (D&C 38:27).
Paul warned the Philippian saints to be careful of those who would destroy both their faith and unity.Particularly, Paul had in mind traveling Jewish Christian teachers who taught that the Gentile Christians needed to be circumcised.Their teachings were not in harmony with either the doctrine or poilicies of the Church (see Acts 15) and thus brought disharmony between Church members and Church leaders.Therefore Paul warned:“Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision [i.e., mutilators of the flesh” (Philippians 3:2).This statement made by Paul is difficult to translate into English with the same force communicated in Greek.The verse is made up a three phrases, each beginning with the same verb–as the English translation matches by using “Beware” or “Watch out!!”But in all three cases, the object of the verb begins with the Greek letter Kappa –a “k” sound.Perhaps the following translation best translates the Greek: “Watch out for the canines!Watch out for the criminals!Watch out for the cutters!”
Calling the Judaizing Christians as canines, criminals, and cutters is fascinating.Calling them dogs was an insult reflecting the carnivorous nature of a dog–who roamed the streets eating anything (see Psalms 59:6, 14), thus rendering them ritually impure in the law of Moses.Thus, the Judaizing Christians who went from congregation to congregation without authority were no better than ritually impure dogs.Paul considered them criminals because they were robbing the innocent and unsuspecting gentile Christians from true and authorized worship of God.They were “cutters” – the Greek word means mutilators – is a play on the term ‘circumcision.’Since circumcision was not necessary for salvation, the Judaizers were only promoting mutilation.The warning was clear–reject any who have or will come trying to promote the law of Moses just as you would be on the alert of roaming dogs, criminals or those who would mutilate your body!
Paul taught the Philippians to be more concerned about a circumcised heart instead of circumcising the flesh.It is what man has become through his actions and intents of his heart that recommends him to God–not simply the rituals he has participated in.“For we are the circumcision [i.e, spiritual circumcision], which worship God in the spirit [i.e., with real intent], and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh [i.e., rituals of the law of Moses]” (Philippians 4:3). He told the Philippian saints that his conversion to the spiritual nature of Christ’s law freed him from the restricting disposition of the law of Moses (see Philippians 3:5-6).He said: “But what things were gain to me [through the law of Moses], those I counted loss for Christ.Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ” (Philippians 3:7-8).
Paul taught the necessity of pressing towards the goal of becoming one with God, the Father.He stated, “I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.”He then said, “Let us therefore, as many as be perfect, be thus minded: and if in any thing ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even this unto you” (Philippians 3:15).The Greek word translated perfect is teleios .Elder Russell M. Nelson spoke of the meaning of this word in General Conference: “ Teleios is an adjective derived from the noun telos , which means ‘end.The infinitive form of the verb is teleiono , which means ‘to reach a distant end, to be fully developed, to consummate, or to finish.’
Please note that the word does not imply ‘freedom from error’; it implies ‘achieving a distant objective.’In fact, when writers of the Greek New Testament wished to describe perfection of behavior—precision or excellence of human effort—they did not employ a form of teleios; instead, they chose different words.” [iv] The same word was used by the Savior in the Sermon on the Mount when He said, “Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect” (Matt. 5:48).Hence, to be perfect means to continue to the desired end and do not quit along the way.
But to achieve the desired perfection or end–that is to be like God–Paul explained the necessity to continue the holy walk until the end.He taught them to continue in what you have been given: “Nevertheless, whereto we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule, let us mind the same thing” (Philippians 3:16).
Paul further taught the Philippian saints not to walk after the manner of those who would pervert the true way to eternal life.Rather, he taught them, follow his pattern and of the authorized teachers of Christ: “Brethren, be followers together of me, and mark them which walk so as ye have us for an ensample.(For many walk, of whom I have told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ:whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things)” (Philippians 3:17-19).
He concluded by impressing upon them that they should be striving to be citizens of the kingdom of God in heaven (see Philippians 3:20).This is possible only through the enabling power of Christ “Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself” (Philippians 3:21).
Along with the letter sent to the Philippian saints, a letter was sent to the saints in Colosse, a small agrarian city in Asia Minor (modern Turkey).Those who joined the Church in Colosse–as most people were at that time–believed in many gods including their influence upon the forces of nature including good and evil spirits.As such, these people were pluralistic–blending the beliefs of many religious systems.
The early Christian converts at Colosse were guilty of syncretism–blending the truths of the gospel with many religious beliefs.The outcome of this blending has been called the Colossian heresy.Exactly what this heresy consisted of is difficult to say.All we have is Paul’s response.
From Paul’s response, however, we can determine the following elements and teachings of the Colossian heresy.  The Colossian saints had strict rules regarding what could be eaten and drunk and religious festivals that they could participate in (Col. 2:16-17), and circumcision (Col. 2:11; 3:11).  They were highly ascetic–self-denial (2:21, 23).  There was some form of angel worship (2:18).That is, appealing to certain good angels for protection against evil spirits.  They claimed to have certain hidden or secret knowledge (2:2-3, 18).  They often relied on human wisdom, knowledge and tradition, rather than from the doctrines and revelations of Church leaders (2:4,8).And finally,  the Colossian saints minimized the role and mission of Jesus Christ (1:15-20; 2:2-3,9).
The first thing of interest to me regarding the letter to the Colossians was that Paul was concerned about the saints in a small, unimportant city.For Paul, members of the Church–whether in Rome or Colosse–were of equal importance to him.In the kingdom of God in heaven or on earth, status is of no importance.All are as one!
Perhaps the most important aspect of Paul’s letter to the Colossians is his teachings concerning Jesus Christ.The following are various points Paul taught the Colossians in order to help them understand the supreme and elevated nature of Jesus Christ.
- Paul is clear that it is through Jesus Christ that man is redeemed and saved from the power of Satan-the ultimate evil spirit.To this end, Paul taught the Colossians that the should give “thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light: who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son: in whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins” (Col. 1:12-13).The Greek word rendered, “translated” in verse 13 means to “rescue from danger, save, deliver, preserve.” [v] Thus, the power to rescue humans from evil spirits is to be found in Jesus Christ.Indeed, the ultimate deliverance needed by man–from the consequences of sin–is obtainable only through the redemptive power of Jesus Christ.
- One of the main missions of Jesus Christ was to perform the atonement which empowers mankind to be redeemed from sin.But Paul spoke of another important mission of the Savior.Christ is the “is the image of the invisible God” (Col. 1:15).This aspect of the Savior’s mission is essential.Joseph Smith taught that in order to have faith powerful enough to obtain eternal life, one must have a “ a correct idea of [God’s] character, perfections, and attributes.” [vi] Christ, as “the image of the invisible God,” exemplifies the perfect nature of God the Father.By studying the example of Christ in the four gospels and his visit to the Nephites, we come to a clearer understanding of the character and attributes of the Father.
- Paul taught the Colossians the doctrine of the Christ as the firstborn.Said he, Christ is “the firstborn of every creature: for by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: and he is before all things, and by him all things consist” (Col. 1:15-17).That is to say, the first creative act of the Father as a father was to create Jesus Christ, the firstborn.Then through Christ everything else was created.Accordingly, Christ is the heir of all the things.
- Paul also taught that Christ is “the head of the body, the church” (Col. 1:18).Peter is not the head of the Church.Paul is not the head of the Church.Jesus Christ is the head of the Church, the organization that administers the ordinances that make the redemptive power of the atonement effective in the lives of the children of men.
- Christ is also the “the firstborn from the dead” (Col. 1:18).He is the first to be resurrected.Because of that, all mankind may be resurrected and escape the monster of death.
- In Christ “all fulness dwell” (Col. 1:19).That is to say, Christ has the fulness of the power of God.Therefore, Christ has the full power to save every man.He has the fulness of God’s kingdom and, as already mentioned, he is the heir to all the Father has.
Paul taught the Colossians that because of the supremacy of Christ above all things, Christ can rescue all from both evil spirits and the evilness of their own flesh.“And you,” Paul wrote, “that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and unblameable and unreproveable in his sight” (Col. 1:21-22).Such reconciliation may be lost if not righteousness is not maintained.Therefore Paul urged the Colossians to “continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel, which ye have heard, and which was preached to every creature which is under heaven” (Col. 2:23).
Continuing his exhortation to steadfastness, Paul wrote: “As ye have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk ye in him: rooted and built up in him, and stablished in the faith, as ye have been taught, abounding therein with thanksgiving” (Col. 2:6-7).He warned of those who would pervert the truth through blending the eternal truths of the gospel with the philosophies and teachings of men: “Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. ” (Col. 2:8).
He reminded the Colossians of the symbolism of their baptism.They were “circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ: buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead” (C0l. 2:11-12).He recalled the merciful nature of God when he saw the Colossians in their sinful state but brought them to a state of reconciliation through the atonement of Jesus Christ: “And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses; blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross; and having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it” (Col. 2:13-15).
He told them to loosen up on their ascetic practices: “Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days” (Col. 2:16).Further, he focused their attention of the worship of God rather than the false worship of angels by saying: “Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind, and not holding the Head, from which all the body by joints and bands having nourishment ministered, and knit together, increaseth with the increase of God” (Col. 2:18-19).
He posed a serious question to the Colossians: “Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances, (touch not; taste not; handle not; which all are to perish with the using;) after the commandments and doctrines of men?” (Col. 2:20-22).That is to say, since you have buried the natural man in the waters of baptism, why do you follow the practices and precepts of men?Do you not understand that in so doing that you will lose your reconciliation with God and become subject once again to the evil influences of Satan that you escaped?
Therefore, Paul taught, focus your eyes on the things above the world and not the world.Said he, “If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. Set your affection on things above, not on things on the earth” (Col. 3:1-2).Such counsel is relevant to us in the latter days!
In order to do this, Paul taught, “Mortify [i.e., put to death] therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication [i.e., immorality], uncleanness [i.e., impure thoughts and actions], inordinate affection [i.e., lust], evil concupiscence [i.e., evil desires], and covetousness [i.e., greed], which is idolatry: for which things’ sake the wrath of God cometh on the children of disobedience” (Col. 3:5-6).Further, he told them to “ put off all these; anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth. Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds; and have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him: where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free: but Christ is all, and in all” (Col 3:8-11).
But it is not enough just to put off the natural man.It is essential to become the man of Christ.He listed several things the Colossians must do in order to put on the man of Christ.“Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved . . .
- “bowels of mercies,
- “humbleness of mind,
- “forbearing one another,
- “and forgiving one another,
- “if any man have a quarrel against any: even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye.
- “And above all these things [put on] charity, which is the bond of perfectness.
- “And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful.
- “Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.
- “And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him” (Col. 3:12-17)
Truly, such counsel is appropriate for members of the Church today.
The letters Paul sent to Philippi and Colosse were taken by some of Paul’s companions.In Paul’s conclusion to his letter to the Colossians, Paul said: “All my state shall Tychicus declare unto you, who is a beloved brother, and a faithful minister and fellowservant in the Lord: whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that he might know your estate, and comfort your hearts; with Onesimus, a faithful and beloved brother, who is one of you. They shall make known unto you all things which are done here” (Col. 4:7-9).
The mention of Onesimus is important to the letter Paul wrote to Philemon, a Christian believer who lived in Colosse.Like many of that time period, Philemon owned slaves.Indeed, to the Colossian saints, Paul had given counsel to those who owned slaves, possibly to set up the letter to Philemon: “Masters, give unto your servants [Greek word means “slave”] that which is just and equal; knowing that ye also have a Master in heaven” (Col. 4:1).Paul also told the slaves: “Servants, obey in all things [your] masters according to the flesh; not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but in singleness of heart, fearing God: and whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men; knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance: for ye serve the Lord Christ.But he that doeth wrong shall receive for the wrong which he hath done: and there is no respect of persons” (Col. 3:22-25).
Onesimus was one of Philemon’s slaves, who had apparently stolen from him and then run away.This was on offense punishable by death in Roman law.But Onesimus had met Paul and became converted to Christianity through Paul’s teachings.Now Paul was sending Onesimus back to Philemon, most likely as part of his repentance process.
Paul wrote a personal letter to Philemon to make an appeal to accept Onesimus as a Christian brother.
The letter is carefully constructed.Paul first greets Philemon reminding him of Paul’s own captivity in his Roman prison (Philemon 1:1-2).He then praised Philemon for his steadfastness in the gospel, even allowing his home to be the meeting place for the Colossian Church (Philemon 1:3-7).
Then Paul pled for Onesimus.Paul said that he could order Philemon to accept Onesimus but rather hoped that Philemon’s Christian love would be the means of accepting his repentant slave (Philemon 1:8-9).
He then put the pressure on Philemon: “being such an one as Paul the aged, and now also a prisoner of Jesus ChristI beseech thee for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten in my bonds: which in time past was to thee unprofitable, but now profitable to thee and to me: whom I have sent again: thou therefore receive him, that is, mine own bowels: whom I would have retained with me, that in thy stead he might have ministered unto me in the bonds of the gospel: but without thy mind would I do nothing; that thy benefit should not be as it were of necessity, but willingly” (Philemon 1:9-14).
Then Paul used a bit of interesting reasoning: “perhaps he therefore departed for a season, that thou shouldest receive him for ever; not now as a servant, but above a servant, a brother beloved, specially to me, but how much more unto thee, both in the flesh, and in the Lord?”(Philemon 1:15-16) What Paul reasoned may or may not be true.But one thing is for sure–you cannot count it out!
Then once again, Paul urged Philemon to accept Onesimus back.Paul even offered to pay back the money Onesimus stole from Philemon (Philemon 1:17-19).Interesting!Paul was willing to give up some of the much needed money he had received from the Philippian saints given him for his personal needs while in prison in order to help out Onesimus.Truly, Paul was a loving man.
From the three letters to the Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon, we see the caring nature of Paul.He was a man, though confined to prison, whose concern was for the welfare of the kingdom of God and little of his own concerns.He, himself, epitomized the steadfastness that he exhorted his readers to display.He remained loyal to both God and his converts.He showed not sign of wavering while in the face of persecution or the pressure of trials.
May that be said of all of us!
[i] William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature 3 rd Edition (Revised and edited by Frederick William Danker, Chicago: The Unversity of Chicago Press, 2000), p. 846.
[ii] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature , p. 845.
[iii] C. Wilfred Griggs, “I Have a Question,” Ensign , Feb. 1976, p. 36.
[iv] Russell M. Nelson, “Perfection Pending,” Ensign , Nov. 1995, p. 86.
[v] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature , p. 907.
[vi] Lectures on Faith , 3:4.