Another factor is that the Anti-Nephi-Lehis were not citizens of the Nephite nation. The agreement between then and the Nephites was a classic Near Eastern treaty between sovereign nations, admitting them as a self-governing tributary, a "medinah," living within the larger nation. It was negotiated between them and the Chief Judge, and sent out to the Kol-ha-Am, the “Voice of the People,” i.e. the Parliament, for ratification. As tributaries, they would be normally expected to contribute to the national defense, but pacifism was to the advantage of the Nephites because (a) they were less likely to revolt, not being capable of it, and (b) it left more men at home to work the land and provide material support for the Nephites. So it worked out for everyone.
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