Joseph Smith was tasked by the Lord to do something rather unique for a backwoods, upstate New York farmer now living in Northern Ohio. The Prophet Nephi had seen a vision some two thousand four hundred years before that many of the plain and precious things which were in the Bible had been taken out by the great and abominable Church, and because those plain and precious things were taken away, “an exceedingly great many do stumble, yea, insomuch that Satan hath great power over them.” (See 1 Nephi 13: 26-29) This commandment from the Lord and branch of Joseph’s calling would be to carefully go through the Bible and begin to restore many of those plain and precious things that were lost. He was commanded to translate the Bible. And the results would be astounding. We’ll talk about this in detail in this episode.
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Joseph Smith was tasked by the Lord to do something rather unique for a backwoods, upstate New York farmer now living in Northern Ohio. The Prophet Nephi had seen a vision some two thousand four hundred years before that many of the plain and precious things which were in the Bible had been taken out by the great and abominable Church, and because those plain and precious things were taken away, “an exceedingly great many do stumble, yea, insomuch that Satan hath great power over them.” (See 1 Nephi 13: 26-29) This commandment from the Lord and branch of Joseph’s calling would be to carefully go through the Bible and begin to restore many of those plain and precious things that were lost. He was commanded to translate the Bible. And the results would be astounding. We’ll talk about this in detail today.
Hello dear friends, we are Scot and Maurine Proctor and this is Meridian Magazine’s Come Follow Me podcast where today we will be talking about Doctrine and Covenants Sections 71 through 75 in a lesson entitled: “No Weapon That Is Formed against You Shall Prosper.” Remember, you can find the transcripts for these podcasts and share these podcasts with your family and friends at: latterdaysaintmag.com/podcast. That’s latterdaysaintmag.com/podcast.
Now let’s talk for a moment about the process of the translation of the Bible by the Prophet Joseph Smith. First, you have to picture Egbert Bratt Grandin’s Building in Palmyra. On the top floor is where the press was that printed the Book of Mormon. On the middle floor, or second floor as we would call it in the United States, was the bindery, the place where copies of the Book of Mormon were cut, sewn and bound together with leather bindings. And on the ground floor, or first floor as we call it, was the Palmyra Bookstore where people could buy copies of the Book of Mormon and other significant books and items.
During the printing of the Book of Mormon in Palmyra, on Thursday, October 8, 1829, Oliver Cowdery purchased a H. & E. Phinney Quarto Bible, the 1828 edition, for $3.75 which included the Apocrypha, by the way. This plays into the story. This Bible was printed in Cooperstown, New York. Some of you may recognize that town as the home of the Baseball Hall of Fame. Just so you know, that wasn’t there in Joseph’s day.
Now, three dollars and 75 cents sounds like a bargain for a large, leather-bound, family Bible. That 1829 amount is equivalent to $108.55 in today’s money so that was quite an expenditure. This very Bible was signed in the front and it read:
The Book of the Jews and the property of
Joseph Smith, Junior and Oliver Cowdery
Bought October the 8th, 1829. at Egbert B. Grandin’s
Book Store Palmyra Wayne County New York.
Then, obscured by age and wear and tear at the bottom is handwritten: Holiness to the Lord.
Little did Oliver and Joseph know that not only would this very Bible become THE Bible they used in the translation process, but it would become one of the most valuable artifacts of the ongoing Restoration of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
And Joseph and Oliver and Sidney Rigdon used this Bible throughout the course of the translation process. And this intense study of the Bible and translation took place from June 1830 until July 1833, a period of about 37 months.
And, Scot, there is a direct correlation between these three years of extreme focus on the scriptures and the receipt of revelation. As Joseph worked by commandment of the Lord on the translation of the Bible, to restore many of the plain and precious things that had been lost, Joseph was prompted to ask questions, to seek guidance and to pray for revelation—and it came in rich abundance. In fact, that 37-month period of the Bible translation is the time period when the most revelations were received in Joseph’s life—more than 70 of the sections of the Doctrine and Covenants—more than any other similar period of time. Study the scriptures very, very consistently and very, very prayerfully, and daily ponder, meditate, reflect and pour over the scriptures and, for Joseph, revelation came—and it came often and in abundance. There’s certainly a pattern for us personally there.
Maurine, I have to insert a footnote here. I’ve always loved that H. and E. Phinney Bible that Joseph used for the translation. Oftentimes it has been displayed in the Community of Christ (formerly Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) museum in Independence, Missouri. That is, as we said, a treasure.
I wanted to have a Phinney Bible just like that one in our home and I always kept my eye open for one. At the end of a particular Church History research trip into western New York and Northern Pennsylvania, I was stopping at every antique store along the way just hoping that I would find one of these from near the area where it was first published. I saw a little sign nailed to a tree in a rural area of Upstate New York. I followed the gravel road for about two and half miles and finally came to an old barn with a hand-painted sign that said, “Antiques” on it. I pictured the whole barn being full of the most delicious items and surely a whole section of antiquarian books. Well, I walked in and there wasn’t much there, a few antique tools and farm implements, some old, red Coca Cola signs, some boxes of junk and really nothing else. But I looked over in the corner on a crossbeam of the barn structure and laying there was what looked like an old family Bible. I went over to see it. It was not in the best condition but it was certainly a beautiful, big, leather-bound, heritage-type Bible. I carefully picked it up and opened to the title page: It was an H. and E. Phinney Bible, the very same edition that Joseph used in the translation! I couldn’t believe it. I had no idea how much the woman wanted, but I had a ridiculously small budget for such items, and I said in my heart, “If I can get this for $30 dollars, I will buy it.” I asked the woman across the barn, “How much do you want for this old Bible?” She said, “Oh, I don’t know. How about twenty-five dollars?” I said, holding back my enthusiasm, “I think I would like to buy this.” Well, that has become a treasure in our home, and it reminds us daily of the process that Joseph and Oliver and Sidney went through to translate the Bible.
And by the way, sometimes you can find these on eBay for reasonable prices. I just looked as I was preparing this podcast and there is an 1828 edition, the exact year and edition of Joseph’s Bible, for $1,800. It’s in excellent condition (ours is not in great condition).
We do love our Phinney Bible. And Scot, you took classes from Robert J. Matthews on the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible at BYU. Brother Matthews was the world expert on the translation, and it was through him that we gained the trust of our cousins in the RLDS Church so that we could look at all the source documents and see if the Inspired Version of the Bible that was published in Independence, Missouri in 1867 was accurate and true to Joseph’s changes and modifications. And sure enough, it is! And because of Robert J. Matthews, over many years of building those relationships, the Church was able to incorporate JST references into our current editions of the Bible.
What was the process of Joseph’s translation of the Bible?
The Prophet used the Phinney Bible, as we described, the pages are 10 ½ inches high and 8 ½ wide with some small margins around the body of the biblical text and he would read from this, verse by verse and mark certain passages and then dictate the revisions, corrections and additions to a scribe, like Oliver Cowdery, Emma, Frederick G. Williams and Newel K. Whitney who wrote these down on paper. Now these were the minor scribes in this 37-month project. The main scribe of the whole translation was Sidney Rigdon. Sometimes they would write down an entire verse and sometimes only the part to be revised. The “translation” was done by divine revelation to the mind of the Prophet Joseph.
Some have asked, “Why is this called a translation when Joseph is dealing with a book in English and giving the revisions in English?” Robert J. Matthews gives this answer: “Joseph himself called his work a ‘translation.’ This is apparently in the sense in which he understood the work he was doing with the Bible. Since in part he was effecting a restoration of lost meaning and material, and since the Bible did not originate in English, the work to some degree would amount to an inspired, or revelatory, ‘translation’ into English of that which the ancient prophets and apostles had written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and/or Greek.” (Matthews, Robert J., “A Plainer Translation” Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible A History and Commentary, Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah, 1985, p. xxx.)
And did Joseph finish the work? Well, he did look at every book from Genesis to Revelation, and although he did not make marks or revisions in every book, he did state in a letter dated 2 July 1833 that he had that day “finished” the translation of the Bible.
And do we have the entire translation now as a part of our newest editions of our Bibles published by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints? No, we do not. We do have the 8 chapters of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price which is all from the Joseph Smith Translation. That work alone comprises 356 verses. We have Joseph Smith Matthew in the Pearl of Great Price and that is all directly from the Joseph Smith Translation. That gives us another 55 verses. We have around 750 verses that have been footnoted in our current editions of the Bible including a section in the back for selections too long to include in footnotes. With all that, just over 1,160 verses. It’s important to note that Joseph effected changes, revisions or additions to 3,410 verses.
To give you a sense of scale, there are 1,292 verses in the 66 chapters of Isaiah which comprises about 80 pages of the Old Testament. Many people have felt like the Joseph Smith Translation was really not a big deal—but it’s really a big deal!
Many people do not access the wonderful footnotes and revisions we have readily available to us in our editions of the Bible. Some don’t think it’s important. These changes are all part of the doctrinal restoration of the plain and precious truths that have been lost through the centuries.
Here’s what Elder Bruce R. McConkie had to say about this:
“…the doctrinal restoration. It is the restoration of the principles of the gospel. It is the restoration of the truths of salvation. It is the restoration of that knowledge without which men could not have faith like the ancients and thus prepare themselves to receive and be participants in the other restored events of which we speak.
“Unless and until men believe the doctrines of the restoration they can never—never, never, never—worlds without end, prepare themselves to abide the day of our Lord’s return; to dwell with Enoch and his fellows in the returning Zion; to stand with the elect of Israel in building up their ancient homeland; to perform miracles; to glory in the gifts of the Spirit; and to find full fellowship with the Saints of that God who has bought us with his blood…
“Let me speak plainly. Satan hates and spurns the scriptures. The less scripture there is, and the more it is twisted and perverted, the greater the rejoicing in the courts of hell.”
Elder McConkie continues:
“May I be pardoned if I say that negative attitudes and feelings about the Joseph Smith Translation [or even apathy towards it] are simply part of the devil’s program to keep the word of truth from the children of men.
“Of course the revealed changes made by Joseph Smith are true—as much so as anything in the Book of Mormon or the Doctrine and Covenants.
“Of course we have adequate and authentic original sources showing the changes—as much so as are the sources for the Book of Mormon or the revelations.
“Of course we should use the Joseph Smith Translation in our study and teaching. Since when do any of us have the right to place bounds on the Almighty and say we will believe these revelations but not those?” End of quote. (The Joseph Smith Translation, The Restoration of Plain and Precious Things, edited by Monte S. Nyman and Robert L. Millet, Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 1985, pp.7-8; 12; 14)
The translation of the Book of Mormon, done by the gift and power of God, took about 63 working days (not counting all the time with Martin Harris and the translation of the Book of Lehi that was lost). The translation of the Bible was much less intense, yet, was a focus of the Prophet Joseph for 37 months. And we repeat, during this 37-month period, Joseph received more revelations for the Church than at any other similar period in the early history of the Church. Study the scriptures. Receive revelation. That’s the pattern.
And each of those 3,410 verses in the Bible that Joseph effected changes or revisions and made additions to are all revelation as well.
During this translation period, no less than 15 sections of the Doctrine and Covenants have specific instructions concerning the translation of the Bible (and if you come and access the Podcast scripts at latterdaysaintmag.com/podcast you will see all those references. (D&C 25:6; 35:20; 47:1; 37:1; 73:3; 45:60-61; 93:53; 91:1-6; 41:7; 94:10; 104:58; 124:89; 26:1; 42:56-61; and 90:13)
Revelations on doctrinal subjects that grew out of, or came as a result of the translation of the Bible include at least sections 74, 77, 84, 86, 88, 93, 102, 104, 107, 113 and 132. And, of course, our entire lesson next week is on Section 76, the great vision of the three degrees of glory, which came because of the Bible translation process.
Let’s talk briefly, just to give you a taste, about five different passages in the Joseph Smith Translation that will get you excited to study it more thoroughly and to pay attention to the footnotes that we have and the section in the back of our Bibles that have lengthier passages from the Joseph Smith Translation. This would be like some mini lessons on the things we would love to teach our family in one small session.
We talked about this one in our New Testament podcast but it bears repeating.
At the wedding feast in Cana, where the Savior was in attendance and Mary, the Mother of Jesus was also there—you remember the scene. They got to a certain point in the celebration and they saw they were going to run out of wine. Mary came to Jesus to talk to him about the situation. In the King James Version, we read:
3 And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.
4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come. (John 2: 3-4)
That seems a little abrupt. It feels a little disrespectful of his own mother, rather dismissive. It just doesn’t feel like Jesus. Here’s that passage in the Joseph Smith Translation:
3 And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.
4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what wilt thou have me to do for thee? that will I do; for mine hour is not yet come. (JST John 2:4)
That’s a beautiful change.
Look at Matthew 3: 7 in the King James Version:
But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
Joseph gives us another verse altogether here in addition to this:
34 Why is it that ye receive not the preaching of him whom God hath sent? If ye receive not this in your hearts, ye receive not me; and if ye receive not me, ye receive not him of whom I am sent to bear record; and for your sins ye have no cloak. (JST Matthew 3:34)
Here is a perfect doctrinal reference and clear understanding of the Atonement. The word Atonement is an Old English word meaning At-one-ment. In Hebrew it is kasah (kaw-saw’). In Arabic kefar. You can hear the English word in it—cover. Those beautiful headdresses that the men wear in the Middle East are called keffiyah—and translates as a covering. The atonement of Jesus Christ is a Divine covering. And if we reject the atonement, “for your sins ye have no cloak.” No covering. We don’t want to be in that position!
If you go to the end of Genesis, chapter 14 in the King James Version of your Bible, you will see in verse 24, the last verse, the last word is “portion”—the last footnote of that chapter—footnote ‘a.’ That leads you to the JST Appendix where we get some of the richest material of the entire translation. Many of you have seen this, but it’s worth pausing and actually looking in your gospel library scriptures or in your paper scriptures in the JST Appendix to see this. The whole section is on ancient priesthood power and is talking about the great high priest and King, Melchizedek. We won’t go through all these verses, but here is a sample:
Starting in JST Genesis 14, verse 26:
26 Now Melchizedek was a man of faith, who wrought righteousness; and when a child he feared God, and stopped the mouths of lions, and quenched the violence of fire.
27 And thus, having been approved of God, he was ordained an high priest after the order of the covenant which God made with Enoch,
28 It being after the order of the Son of God; which order came, not by man, nor the will of man; neither by father nor mother; neither by beginning of days nor end of years; but of God;
29 And it was delivered unto men by the calling of his own voice, according to his own will, unto as many as believed on his name.
Now listen very carefully to verses 30 and 31:
30 For God having sworn unto Enoch and unto his seed with an oath by himself; that every one being ordained after this order and calling should have power, by faith, to break mountains, to divide the seas, to dry up waters, to turn them out of their course;
31 To put at defiance the armies of nations, to divide the earth, to break every band, to stand in the presence of God; to do all things according to his will, according to his command, subdue principalities and powers; and this by the will of the Son of God which was from before the foundation of the world.
There are many more verses there but this is a wonderful view of ancient priesthood power, power that is available to us today if we can learn to exercise the faith of the ancients. And this is only in the Joseph Smith Translation.
This is a simple addition but it’s one of my favorites and it wasn’t included as a footnote in our Bibles until the 2013 editions came out electronically. This has to do with the woman taken in adultery. I love everything about this story, the courage, the teachings, the patience and rock-steadiness of the Savior, the scene in the outer court of the temple, the arrogance of the men bringing this woman to Jesus. You know the story. You remember. They thought they had Jesus because the law said that such a woman taken in adultery should be stoned. He said to them: He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.
Remember, then she is left standing alone just with the Savior. He said to her, Woman, where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee? She said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn thee: go, and sin no more. (See John 8: 2-11)
And here is where Joseph, by revelation, adds just 13 words: “And the woman glorified God from that hour, and believed on his name.”
She was converted! She was numbered among the believers. She repented from that hour and went on her way rejoicing. She was blessed as we all are blessed when we turn to Him, repent of our sins and follow His commandments and teachings. What a significant insight into the woman taken in adultery.
This is another simple but revelatory doctrinal addition that Joseph was inspired to give us. If you turn to Genesis, chapter 17. This is where the Lord is establishing the covenant with Abraham that he may become a father of many nations and he changes his name from Abram to Abraham. He promises Abraham that he will be fruitful and that nations and kings will come out of him.
He then establishes the covenant of circumcision. Let’s read from the King James Version in verses 10 – 12:
10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised.
11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you.
12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed.
That verse sounds okay and nothing seems to be missing—it’s pretty straight forward. Right? Now let’s read from Joseph Smith’s revelatory changes in verse 11:
11 And I will establish a covenant of circumcision with thee, and it shall be my covenant between me and thee, and thy seed after thee, in their generations; that thou mayest know forever that children are not accountable before me until they are eight years old.
The symbol of the law of circumcision was that doing this thing at eight days old would always remind them of the law of accountability, that it did not begin until a child is eight years old. Stunning.
Remember, the Prophet Joseph gave us 3,410 verses with changes, revisions, modifications and/or additions in his Bible translation.
One other question might be asked:
Was the translation of the Bible a unique idea in America in the early 1830’s?
Robert J. Matthews writes: “The time in which Joseph Smith lived was a period of religious unrest in the New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio areas. Historians have labeled it the ‘burned-over district’ because of the high religious excitement, particularly of the evangelical and fiery-sermon type. Not only were preachers active in revivalism, but some of the scholarly ones were also at work making new translations of the Bible. The records show that from the years 1777 to 1833 there were more than five hundred separate editions of the Bible, or parts thereof published in America alone.” (Matthews, Robert J. A Plainer Translation, pp. 8-9)
Most importantly we know that Joseph Smith was commanded by the Lord Jesus Christ Himself to do this translation of the Bible and the outcome had tremendous impact on the entire restoration and the revelatory doors to heaven, and, perhaps just as significantly on Joseph himself. When Joseph was carefully studying and pouring over the scriptures, he was also more susceptible to receiving revelation.
We hope from this moment on you will always strive to access the JST footnotes and the JST section in the study aids of your Bible and the 8 chapters of Moses and Joseph Smith Matthew, knowing that all of this was part of the restoration of many of the plain and precious things that were lost.
Let’s look at another contextual matter at this time in late 1831. Ezra Booth, an early Ohio convert, had now apostatized from the Church and went public in ridiculing and fighting against the Church, including publishing a number of articles against the Saints in the Ohio Star, a newspaper in Ravenna, Ohio—just 13 miles away from where Joseph and Emma were living at the Johnson Farm.
Joseph Smith once said, “You can leave the Church but you can’t leave it alone.” And Ezra Booth was proof of this.
Truman Madsen taught this:
“A revealing conversation once occurred between Joseph Smith and a brother named Isaac Behunnin. He had seen men involved in the quorums and in the high spiritual experiences of the kingdom who had subsequently become disaffected, and it was a mystery to him why they had then devoted their zeal and energy to attacking the Church.
“He said to the Prophet: ‘If I should leave this Church, I would not do as those men have done. I would go to some remote place where Mormonism had never been heard of, settle down, and no one would ever learn that I knew anything about it.’
“The Prophet immediately responded: ‘Brother Behunnin, you don’t know what you would do. No doubt these men once thought as you do. Before you joined this Church you stood on neutral ground. When the gospel was preached, good and evil were set before you. You could choose either or neither. There were two opposite masters inviting you to serve them. When you joined this Church, you enlisted to serve God. When you did that, you left the neutral ground, and you never can get back on to it. Should you forsake the Master you enlisted to serve it will be by the instigation of the evil one, and you will follow his dictation and be his servant.’ Happily, Brother Behunnin was faithful to his death.” (Madsen, Truman G., Joseph Smith the Prophet, Bookcraft, Salt Lake City, 1989, pp. 52-53)
Because of Ezra Booth’s publishing his letters with many scathing and false reports against Joseph and the Church, the work began to suffer. The Lord revealed to Joseph in Section 71 what to do:
1 Behold, thus saith the Lord unto you my servants Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, that the time has verily come that it is necessary and expedient in me that you should open your mouths in proclaiming my gospel, the things of the kingdom, expounding the mysteries thereof out of the scriptures, according to that portion of Spirit and power which shall be given unto you, even as I will.
2 Verily I say unto you, proclaim unto the world in the regions round about, and in the church also, for the space of a season, even until it shall be made known unto you.
3 Verily this is a mission for a season, which I give unto you.
7 Wherefore, confound your enemies; call upon them to meet you both in public and in private; and inasmuch as ye are faithful their shame shall be made manifest.
8 Wherefore, let them bring forth their strong reasons against the Lord.
9 Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you—there is no weapon that is formed against you shall prosper; (Doctrine and Covenants 71: 2-3; 7-9)
4 And, inasmuch as it is practicable, to preach in the regions round about until conference; and after that it is expedient to continue the work of translation until it be finished. (Doctrine and Covenants 73:4)
Joseph and Sidney took a break from the translation of the Bible and did just as the Lord commanded.
That’s right. And they responded immediately. Joseph and Sidney challenged Ezra Booth and Symonds Ryder personally to “bring their strong reasons against the Lord.”
Matthew McBride writes:
“Though Sidney Rigdon challenged Booth and Ryder to public debate, they declined, perhaps aware of Rigdon’s reputation as a fierce debater. Rigdon preached in Ravenna, Ohio [where the Ohio Star Newspaper was located], and in other locations, refuting Booth’s claims. Although Booth’s letters had a dampening effect on missionary work, that effect was short-lived.
“Tragically, Booth’s cynicism had driven a wedge not only between him and the restored Church but also between him and his earlier spiritual experiences. He ultimately ‘abandoned Christianity and became an agnostic.’” (McBride, Matthew, Revelations in Context, “Ezra Booth and Isaac Morley,” Gospel Library, Restoration and Church History)
I think sometimes we look at a certain development in our society or a certain situation and we think, “Oh no, this will really affect the Church.” Or “This will really slow things down or change things.”
It reminds me Scot of that moment we had in Ghana when we were there in Accra for the temple dedication. I know you were thinking of that too. We had just had a really long day and it was late evening. We were in the eating area of the hostel that had been built for members coming to visit the temple and where we were staying. As we sat there, Don Staheli, the personal secretary and assistant to President Gordon B. Hinckley walked in and sat down by us. He was a dear friend and we started talking about the day a little bit and asked how the prophet was doing.
We had been thinking about the work of the Church throughout the world and we had been looking at baptism statistics and growth in certain areas and we asked Don, “Does President Hinckley worry about the baptism numbers going down and the growth of the Church seeming to slow a bit?”
I’ll never forget his immediate answer:
“Oh, no, he doesn’t worry about it at all. He knows that it’s in the hands of the Lord and he trusts Him completely.”
I did love that moment. And it reminded me: No weapon that is formed against you shall prosper. This work of the Lord will absolutely continue to move forward. As the Prophet Joseph prophesied:
“The Standard of Truth has been erected; no unhallowed hand can stop the work from progressing; persecutions may rage, mobs may combine, armies may assemble, calumny may defame, but the truth of God will go forth boldly, nobly, and independent, till it has penetrated every continent, visited every clime, swept every country, and sounded in every ear, till the purposes of God shall be accomplished, and the Great Jehovah shall say the work is done.”
That’s all for today. We truly love being with you. Thanks for choosing to study with us each week. Next week our lesson will be on Section 76 of the Doctrine and Covenants with the title: “Great Shall Be Their Reward and Eternal Shall Be Their Glory.” You won’t want to miss that lesson. A big thank you to Paul Cardall for the music that accompanies this podcast and to our producer, Michaela Proctor Hutchins.
Have a great week and see you next time.